Other Academic Researches:

The Quest for Fulfilment by Black Females in the United States: A Reading of
Four Novels by Wright, Ellison, Baldwin and Hughes (Ph. D. Graduating Thesis submitted to the Department
of English at the University of Lagos, Akoka - Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria in January 1999).         
Click here

The Novel as a Tool for Self-Assertion - A Comparison of Some Works by
Ngugi, Selvon and Ellison (M.A. Graduating Dissertation submitted to the Department of English and Literary
Studies at the University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria in November 1990).
Click here

The Theme of Rootlessness in Mine Boy and Tell Freedom by Peter Abrahams and A Walk in the Night and
In the Fog of the Season's End by Alex La Guma (B. A. Research Project Submitted to the Department of
English and Literary Studies at the University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria, May 1987)      Click here

A Memorandum on the Request for the Creation of OGOJA STATE in NIGERIA. Click here



                 TO THE







TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                        PAGE

Table of contents……………………………………………….............            1

Map of the Proposed State…………………………………………….            4

Summary and Conclusion………………………………………………            5

1.         OBJECTIVE……………………………………………………            6

2.         GOING IT ALONE…………………………………………….            7


-        Pre-Independence to 1967……………………………………..…            8

-        The Cross River State Movement………………………………             9

-        The new Cross River State Movement…………………………             9

-        The Ogoja State………………………………………………....              9               

-        Self-Determination……………………………………………              10

-        Ethnic and Socio-cultural Affinity……………………………..               11
-        Viability of the Ogoja State…………………………………...               11

-        Land Mass…………………………………………………….               11

-        Agriculture and Agro-Allied Industries………………………               12
-        Tourism………………………………………………………..               12

-        Mineral Resources…………………………………………...               12

-        Hydro-Electric Power Potentials……………………………..               14                

-        Population…………………………………………………….               14

-        Availability of Manpower……………………………………               14

5.        OGOJA STATE/OGOJA PROVINCE…………………….               16


-        The local Government Areas………………………………………     17

-        The State Capital…………………………………………………...     17

7.        PRAYER…………………………………………………………..     18


8.       LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS……………………………….     20

9.       SIGNATURES…………………………………………………...       21-28                                                


This request acknowledges the immense task before the National Constitution Review Commission and its
States Creation Committee. A disturbing and persistent issue however, is the continued omission whereby the
original twenty-four provinces of Nigeria, except Ogoja, have been accorded the status of State. Indeed, six
other States derive from geopolitically inferior status than the old OGOJA PROVINCE. It is in the light of
this identified sense of injustice and deprivation that we, the people of OLD OGOJA PROVINCE are humbly
re-presenting this Request for the creation of an OGOJA STATE.

In its present form, the Cross River State is made up of two major socio-cultural/ethnic groups namely; the
Efik-speaking peoples of the Old Calabar Province, and the Ogoja peoples of the old Ogoja Province. The
need to preserve and separately develop the identities and economies and economic potentials of these two
groups of people dates back to the Pre-Independence struggle for the creation of the Calabar-Ogoja-Rivers
(COR) State. The Rivers people gained semi-political autonomy with the creation, in1967, of the Rivers State.

Thereafter, the continuing struggle by the people of Ogoja for self-determination had resulted in two
frustrating alliances in such movements like the Cross River State Movement, and the New Cross River
State Movement. In 1987, part of what used to be Calabar Province was carved out of the Cross River State.
That part of Calabar Province now constitutes the present Akwa Ibom State.

The case for the creation of two States from the present Cross River State has been thoroughly articulated in
several documents and commissions.

It is understood and appreciated throughout the country. We are humbly seeking OFFICIAL WILL to grant
the OGOJA people an opportunity for self-determination and self-actualization. This memorandum has clearly
shown, from facts and figures, that the proposal for an Ogoja State delimited within 16,380sq.km of rich
agricultural land, and having a population of over 1.56 million people is viable. The largely untapped Tourism,
Agricultural and Mineral Resources provide a reliable base upon which to build our State. The strong case for
the creation of an OGOJA STATE revolves around the lack of a dominant ethnic group, the existence of a
common administration heritage and the socio-cultural compatibility of the several small ethnic groups. Prior
to the creation of the States in 1967, the factors of compatibility, affinity and development were paramount in
the composition of Ogoja province. These factors were undermined with the lumping together of the Old Ogoja
Province with Calabar Province to create the former South Eastern State (now Cross River State). It is the
desire of the people of Ogoja to chart the course of their destiny in a separate State. In this existing
association, our lot has been that of continued and unfulfilled expectations, inter-ethnic suspicions, frustration,
deprivation and poverty. The authors of this request are fully conscious of the desire of other minority ethnic
groups for self-determination. This request therefore is not in spite of these ethnic interests, but for the
reinforcement of the ideal of group self-determination and actualization.
We seek, indeed, to emphasize the OGOJA STATE AS THE FOCUS OF THIS REQUEST.

The proposed Ogoja State would consist of twenty-one (21) Local Government Areas (with proposed
1.        Obanliku (Sankwalla)                        12.Obudu (Obudu)
2.        Ogoja (Ogoja)                                13. Afi (Edor)
3.        Bekwarra (Abuochichi)                14.Ukelle (Wanokom)
4.        Eastern Boki (Bateriko)                15.Yala (Okpoma)
5.        Agbo (AgboCentral)                        16. Ikom (Ikom)
6.        Emina (Ekori)                                17. Obubra (Obubra)
7.        Yakurr (Ugep)                                18. Bahumono (Ediba)
8.        Utu gwang (Utugwang)                19. Mbube (Ekumtak)
9.        Utanga (Utanga)                        20. Bansara (Bansara)
10.        Etung (Bendeghe)                        21. Adun-Okum (Appiapum)
11.        Western Boki (Boje)

In the spirit of previous states Creation exercise, it is expected that the State capital would be old provincial
Headquarters – Ogoja town.

Finally, the Request for the creation of Ogoja State seeks to permanently remove the yoke of domination,
alienation, and oppression from the fortunes of the people of old Ogoja province.

(1)        Title of proposed State - OGOJA.
(2)        State Capital – Ogoja Town.
(3)        Population – 1. 56 million (Based on the 1991 National Census Results. Current Projections or
Estimates suggest that the actual population of the proposed OGOJA STATE is now above 2. 1 million
(4)        Land Area – 16380 square kilometres.
(5)        Number of proposed Local Government Areas – 21 (Twenty One).

The President and Commander in Chief
of the Armed Forces, Federal Republic of
Alhaji Shehu Musa Yaradua.

Distinguished Senators and Members of the House of Representatives,
National Assembly,
Abuja, Nigeria.



1.        OBJECTIVE

We the undersigned persons of Old Ogoja province, for and on behalf of ourselves and the neglected people of
Ogoja are, gratefully seizing another opportunity to represent our request for the creation of an OGOJA
STATE. Our submission herewith is the continuing struggle for self-determination and a fair share in the
political and Economic development of Nigeria. The recognition of the subject of the creation of the creation of
New States underscores the Head of State’s thorough understanding of the ever –present need to eradicate
one of the most potent causes of instability in Nigeria. The people of Ogoja, 33 years after Independence, are
still suffering from psychological social and economic bondage and neglect. All administrations have
perpetuated this status quo of neglect and deprivation, all the past federal Government administration would
appear to have colluded with forces of detraction to alienate the people of Ogoja from the political and
economic development in Nigeria. Patiently, the people of Ogoja have constitutionally continued to resist all
acts of omission and commission by the various administrations to constitute the area and people of Ogoja into
a flash-point of instability in the constitutional development of this country. It is in the same spirit of patience
and constitutionality that we are once more presenting our request for the creation of an Ogoja State.
Our request seeks to bring into a most relevant and realistic geopolitical association all of the area and
peoples of the old Ogoja province as today constitute that composite part of the Cross River State.
Specifically, it seeks to bring into one State all of the area and people of Yakurr, Abi, Obubra, Ikom, Boki,
Ogoja, Yala, Obudu and Obanliku Local Government Areas of the present Cross River State.

2.        GOING IT ALONE
Hitherto, the people of Ogoja had pursued the objective of self-determination and socio-economic
development as a joint struggle with other minority groups east of the River Niger. At the end of each phase
of the struggle, the people of Ogoja have been betrayed by our comrades acting alone, or in concert with the
Federal or state governments or government agencies, to protect vested selfish interest. In the long and
sometimes bitter struggle dating to the colonial era, the lot of our people has been that of betrayals by trusted
friends, continued frustration, neglect, deprivation, poverty and underdevelopment.

The lesson from the betrayals, and heir consequences of inhibited political and economic development in
Ogoja, is the need to GO IT ALONE in the search for self-determination. The need to ensure a sustained and
coherent struggle with terminal singleness of purpose is he imperative for an association that guarantees self-
determination in a separate State within Nigeria. The objective of achieving political and socio-economic
development can only be guaranteed by the Ogoja people, for the Ogoja people, in an OGOJA STATE


3.1        Pre-Independence to 1967
The struggle for the creation of the Calabar-Ogoja-River (COR) States out of the former Eastern Nigeria
predates Independence (in 1960). The struggle, which started during colonial rule, sought semi-political
autonomy for the minority groups of the Old Province of Calabar, Ogoja, and Rivers. With the creation of
twelve (12) States in Nigeria in 1967 the COR State demand ended. In that exercise, the people of Old
Calabar and Ogoja Provinces were lumped together in an intrinsically heterogeneous and amorphous south
Eastern State to the disadvantage of the Ogoja People. The Rivers State was exercised for the Rivers people.

3.2        The bitter relationship between the four major ethnic groups which were soon
to develop in the south Eastern State underscored the false basis of the forced   political association. In the
unbalanced, bitter and suspicious ethnic equation, the Ibibio, Annang, and Efik all three sharing linguistic and
cultural affinity, effectively dominated the political and economic life of the State. It was only in the ratio of
sharing of the largess of State that observers noticed any hint of difference among the Ibibio, Annang, and
Efik. The area and people of Ogoja were either effectively excluded in the sharing or allowed only token and
symbolic participation.

In the renewed struggle for a separate existence shortly afterwards, a Cross River State Movement was born.
The partners in the movement, though cultural and ethnically different, the Efik and the Ogoja, shared only
the common perception of discrimination in the South Eastern State. Their motivations for the Cross River
State movement were therefore different. The Efik being the smallest in the fraternal trinity which included
the Ibibio and Annang resented the disproportionate sharing of largess with their kit and kin. In the Cross
River State the Efik hoped for a greater sharing ratio. For their part, the Ogoja had hoped for an association,
the Cross River State, that guaranteed security against the socio-economic neglect and deprivation that was
their lot in the south Eastern State.

3.4        The struggle for the creation of the creation of the Cross River State was      
undermined at the last moment when detractors, playing on the suspicions of the proponents, succeeded in
compromising the over-riding objective of the movement. For various reasons, principal among which was the
suspicion over the choice of State Capital, the case for the Cross River State was lost. Rather, the south
Eastern State was renamed the Cross River State in an exercise that created seven additional states to
produce the 19 States structure in Nigeria. Though recommended by the Commission (1975), the suspicions
and betrayals within the movement once more frustrated the hopes of the Ogoja people for a fairer share in
the political and economic development of Nigeria.


In 1979, another petition for the creation of the new Cross River State (NCRS) was submitted to the National
Assembly. The NCRS was described in that petition as comprising the people Calabar, Odukpani, Akamkpa,
Obubra, Ikom, Ogoja and Obudu. A strong case for inclusion of Oron in the NCRS, itself a divisive and
controversial proposition, was accepted by the movement for the creation of the NCRS. Despite internal
upheavals and mutual suspicion within the movement, the proponents held together in the demand for the
creation of the NCRS. Owing more to the ineffectiveness and inconsistencies of the Civilian Politics (1979-
1983), than to any faults in the movement, the NCRS was not created until the demise of the shangari
Administration in December, 1983, following the Buhari Coup-d’etat.

3.6        THE OGOJA STATE

Our first demand in 1986 for the Ogoja State was submitted to the Political Bureau, appointed by the
Babangida administration. It was another start by the people of Old Ogoja Province in the continuing struggle
for self-determination. The focus of that demand was the creation of two States out of the old Provinces of
Calabar and Ogoja respectively. In 1987, part of Calabar Province was carved out to form the present Akwa
Ibom State. The other part, together with all of Old Ogoja province now constitutes the present Cross River
State. In its present form it is a yoke with a structure that is incompatible with the spirit of self-determination
of the people of Ogoja. This request recognizes the deficiencies and weaknesses of past movements in the
struggle for political and socio-economic identity of the people of Ogoja. The authors are also fully conscious
that the continuous alienation of the people of Ogoja by the Federal Government has its roots in the ethnic, as
well in the majority/minority politics of Nigeria. We therefore, seek to be carved out into an Ogoja State where
ethnicity and the politics of numbers are rendered irrelevant and inapplicable, by the absence of a dominant
ethnic group, and the existence of an old heritage of cultural and socio-economic affinity. Our request seeks to
complete the process, started in 1967, of creating States from the former Provinces of the Federation. Further,
we seek to emphasize the old Ogoja Province as the focal point of this request for a new State out of the
present Cross River State.


4.1        Self-Determination

It is time for the people of Ogoja to take their destiny in their hands. Through persistent neglect and
deprivation, the entire area referred to as the Old Ogoja Province has remained the most backward and least
developed part of Nigeria. There is noticeably neither the State nor Federal Presence in the Old Ogoja
Province; an area covering over 16,380sq.km. There is a complete absence of any industrial base in terms of
government- owned factories and infrastructure. The private sector is mainly a roll-call of subsistent farmers,
petty traders, and petty contractors. This situation contrast sharply with the position in the remaining part of
the Old Calabar province where the list of government-owned factories and institutions include:-

1.        Crel Factory
2.        Calabar Cement Factory (Calabar)
3.        Eastern Match Industry (Calabar)
4.        Seromwood Industry (Calabar)
5.        Calvenply (Calabar)
6.        State Secretariat, and Headquarters
of State-owned Parastatals (Calabar)
7.        The Airport (Calabar)
8.        The Seaport (Calabar)
9.        The Export Processing Zone (Calabar)
10.        The NNPC Tank Farm (Calabar
11.        The Polytechnic, Calabar
12.        The University of Calabar (Calabar)
13.        Military Installations – Army,
Navy, Airforce (Calabar)
14.        The College of Education, Akamkpa
15.        Fruit juice, Odukpani
16.        Poyl Rub, Akamkpa
17.        Flour Mill, Calabar

4.2        Since the creation of the South Eastern State (much of which is now Cross        River State), the
dominant position of the indigenes of the Old Calabar Province in Government has assured them the firm
control of the flow of capital and domination of the State’s economy. As a result, the private sector in Ogoja is
non- existent

4.3        The tale of neglect spans all aspects of the life of Ogoja, from lack of roads to     the neglect of
existing ones; from the almost non-existent health care delivery system to the poor staffing of, and lack of
learning or teaching aids in the community-built schools.

4.4        For too long, the Ogoja people have left their destinies in the hangs of others. For another chance, we
are craving to be given an opportunity to run our affairs.

The people of Ogoja share a common heritage. The several small ethnic groups distributed over 16380sq.km.
share ethnic and socio-cultural affinity. Above all, we enjoy a common administration from the colonial era.

4.6        The major dialectical groups include Bette, Becheva, Sankwalla, Bekwarra, Etung, Boki, Ejagham,
Yala, Yache, Gabu, Olulumo, Yakurr, Mbebe, Bahumuno, and Agbo. None of these dialectical groups is big
enough to dominate the others. Rather, Pidgin English is generally spoken as the dominant language of the
people. The absence of a dominant factor among the ethnic groups, the common socio-cultural and
administrative heritage, and the adoption of Pidgin English as a lingua-Franca all provide the solid foundation
on which to build a peaceful and prosperous State.


(i) Viability Established

The entire comprising the area and people of Ogoja was considered viable enough to be constituted into one of
the 24 (twenty four) provinces of colonial Nigeria. It was viable enough to stay as a Province until May, 1967,
when it was lumped with Calabar Province to form the Cross River State (the South Eastern State). Indeed, all
of the former provinces except Ogoja Province were constituted into States. The decision for lumping Ogoja
with Calabar in the South Eastern State derives more from miscalculations of the ethnic relationships, and a
false perception of the compatibility of the ethnic constituents than from economic consideration.

(ii) Land Mass
The proposed Ogoja State lies between latitude 5degrees 40’N and 7degrees 00N and longitudes 8degrees E
and 10degrees E: and form the northern half of the present Cross River State. It is bounded to the North by
Benue State, West by Enugu and Abia State, to the South by Biase and Akamkpa LGAs. and to the East by
the Republic of Cameroon.
From all economic and demographic considerations, Ogoja Province is viable enough to be constituted into a
State. With a land mass of 16,380 sq. km, Ogoja Province is larger than seven (7) States of the United States
of America whose land areas range from 1,942sq.km. (for Rhode island) to 13,211 sq. km (for Massachusetts).
Indeed, Ogoja Province is larger than or compares favourably with several member countries of the United
Nations among which are the Bahamas (13,935 sq. km), and even Jamaica (11,424 sq. km). Infact, the
proposed Ogoja State is larger than Lagos, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Enugu, Imo, Delta and Edo States and
compares favourably in size with several newly created States.

(iii) Agricultural and Agro-allied Industries

The proposed Ogoja State with a landmass of 16,380sq. km possesses climatic, soil and vegetation conditions
that provide tremendous agricultural and Agro-Allied industrial potentials.

About 20% of the land area of the proposed State consist of forests located at the Southern parts such as
Ugep, Obubra, Ikom, Boki, while, a large part of the Ogoja region consist of grassland or savanna at places
such as Ogoja, Obudu, Obanliku etc.This variety of soils and vegetation makes possible the cultivation of an
equally wide variety of agricultural produce ranging from food to cash crops. The food crops grown include
Yams, Cassava, Cocoyam, and Maize, Beans, Rice, Millet and several market garden crops. While some of
the cash crops that thrive well in the region include cocoa, rubber, palm-oil, kola nuts, bananas, plantains,
coffee etc.

The Cross River Basin (consisting of the Cross River flowing through Ikom, Obubra, Ugep areas and other
smaller rivers & streams) offers a suitable agricultural potentials which together with the generally good
cultivable land of the State can be harnessed for plantation agriculture and for Agro-Allied industries given
adequate political and associated economic institutions through an Ogoja State.

The Obudu Cattle Ranch provides immense facilities for livestock farming or ranching. The vast luxuriant
grassland provides grazing pasture for a variety of livestock including goats, sheep and cattle.

(iv) Tourism

The Obudu Ranch Resort has become a foremost destination for local and international tourists. It is
presently the number one tourist destination in Nigeria and with greater commitment on the part of stake
holders, could become Africa’s foremost resort for tourism. With its breath taking amenities and
infrastructure that are amply cushioned on the universally acclaimed generosity of  the indigenous people
within the area, this facility is indeed, world class and could be further enhanced for greater excellence. The
Obudu Cattle Ranch is naturally endowed with an intrinsic capacity to yield at least US$100 billion annually
from agriculture and tourism.
Other resources include the natural land formations and forest which, in themselves, are assets to the
development of Agriculture and Tourism in Ogoja. The Kanyang Wild Life Reserves, Agbokim Waterfall and
the Alok Monoliths can be developed into havens with handsome annual economic returns to Ogoja State. So
far, the skewed policies of the various administrations (since 1967) which derive from the ethnic perception of
economic development have stultified the development of agricultural and tourist industries in Ogoja.

(v) Mineral Resources

The mineral resources base of Ogoja portends an economically viable State. Established mineral reserves
include: (a) Crude Oil in Commercial quantity (tested and proven) at Ishi-Aya, Ibil in the Ogoja Local
Government Area.

(b) Limestones at Ugep to support a viable cement plant.
The limestones would provide raw materials for a lime plant to service the steel, glass, paint, and agricultural

(c) Quartz/Basal/Quartzite in Obudu, Ogoja, Yala and Ikom; would  
support a glass and glassware industry.

(d) Salt Deposits in Yala, Boki and Ikom; would adequately support the      
commercial production of common salt for the home and industry. The demand for common salt is underscored
by the huge requirements of the petrochemical industries which are estimated at 500,000 metric tones
annually from 1987. In addition, the salt deposits offer opportunities for the development of the Soda, Potash
and Chlorine gas factories.

(e) Gypsum, found in Ikom, Ogoja, Yala and Obudu; is an important
requirement of the Cement industries; used in the making of plaster of paris; and is important in the
production of fertilizers.
All of the above minerals are important in the daily lives of the individual and the nation. The development of
a State’s economy on the exploitation of these deposits will ensure viability and the overall development of the

(vi)  Hydro-Electric Power Potential

The Cross River which rises from the Republic of Cameroon and flows  into the proposed Ogoja State through
Ikom, Obubra with an annual discharge (recorded over a period of 12 years (1972-83) of 10763.28 cubic
metres (cumecs) at Ikom 16281 cumecs at Obubra combined with the Agbokim waterfall at Ikom is one of the
greatest Nigeria rivers with great H.E.P potentials which with proper management & establishment of
appropriate institutional framework with the governments of the surrounding Republic of Cameroon and other
States and LGAs in Nigeria in the form of  the establishment of a Cross River Basin (International)
Commission is capable of producing electrical power necessary for the various industrial & economic activities
boosting the agricultural and tourism industries, thus contributing immensely to national development. This is
a fact which has been acknowledged by the appropriate authorities (NEPA) but has been ignored as part of the
general neglect of the Ogoja region.

(vii) Population

In the helpless circumstances we have always found ourselves, population figures have always been under-
estimated by majority group interests in order to perpetuate the negative geopolitics of development in Ogoja.
In spite of this, the present population, estimated at 1,560,000 people, is distributed over 16,380 sq. km. of
land. This allows a population density of 96 persons per square kilometer. The demographic factor of low
population density (i.e. ratio of population to land mass) in Ogoja facilitates agricultural development,
promotes good neighborliness, and enhances peace and stability. In terms of sheer population size, Ogoja is
larger than 12 States of the United States of America with between 300,000 and 800,000 inhabitants.
Furthermore, at a population size of over one million inhabitants it is larger than several member States of the
United Nations viz:
Bahamas (205,000), Barbados (251,000), Belize (137,200), Grenada (109,000), and Guyana (884,000).

The population of the proposed Ogoja State compares favorably with those of Niger (1,200,000), Ogon State
(1,600,000), and Rivers (1,700,000) States. (1963 population figures projected to 1980). This document
acknowledges the 1991 population Census figures, but it also acknowledges the controversy surrounding
figures in some areas, especially that of the present Cross River State.

(viii) Availability of Manpower

There will be no shortage of manpower for the services of an Ogoja State. Presently, there is a surfeit of
University graduates in Ogoja. In the service of the Cross River State Government there are at least 30 top
civil servants of the level 16 cadre and above.

These are adequate to start off any administration. It is further estimated that at least 550 indigenes of Ogoja
graduate every year from the University and other institutions of higher learning. Indeed, there is more
developed and skilled manpower in the Old Ogoja Province than in several States of the Federation.

At 1,560,000 (2.560,000 million current projections) inhabitants spread over 16,380 sq. km. of land there is a
guaranteed labour force to satisfy the demands of the dominant occupation and invested, which is Agriculture.

4.8        the case or justification for the creation of an Ogoja State is predicated on
unassailable arguments of self-determination and viability. We have humbly shown, from facts and figures
around Nigeria and the world, that all considerations bear out the demand for an Ogoja State. As a people,
Ogoja has a destiny. The arrival of this destiny, we believe, is only being delayed. We are, this time around,
addressing our Request, not to politicians, but to the President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces
of Nigeria. We are therefore, relying on the objectively and the proven sense of good judgment of the
President himself. It is the desire of the people of Ogoja that the merit of our case which derives from
humanitarian considerations be the guide in the consideration of our Request.


5.1        The Signatories to the Request for an Ogoja State are fully conscious of the achievement of the
Federal Government in changing the political structure of Nigeria. The main thrust of the argument in favour
of the return to the 24 (twenty four) provinces had evolved around the identification, delimitation and grouping
of compatible and culturally related ethnic groups in the Provincial system. Specifically, Ogoja Province as at
1967, was without Abakaliki and Afikpo, which had, hitherto, been the unrelated constituents of the then Ogoja
Province. In an earlier restructuring exercise, Abakaliki and Afikpo had been excised from Ogoja Province in
order to give effect and meaning to the compatibility, affinity and the development of the people of Obudu,
Ogoja, Ikom and Obubra.

5.2        The lumping of Ogoja Province (described as Obudu, Ogoja, Ikom and Obubra) Calabar Province in
the 1967 State creation exercise was a retrogressive step imposed on the people of Ogoja. From semi-
autonomy in an Ogoja Province, we were forced into another era of subservience in an association with the
Efik-speaking people of Old Calabar Province in what was called the south Eastern State.

5.3        As a Province, Ogoja enjoyed a political status that equals existing States namely, Bauchi (Bauchi
State), Gongola (now Adamawa and Taraba), Borno (Borno and Yobe States), Benue (Benue State), Illorin,
Kabba, Kano (Jigawa States), Katsina (Katsina State), Niger (Niger State), Plateau (Plateau State), Sokoto
(Sokoto (Sokoto and Kebbi States), Zaria (Kaduna State), Abeokuta (Ogun State), Benin (Edo and Delta
States), Ijebu, Ondo (Ondo State), Imo (Imo and Abia State), Anambra (Anambra, Enugu States), and Oyo
(Oyo, Oshun States).

5.4        What the Ogoja people want now is semi-political autonomy to enable us to chart the course of our

5.5        We decry the loss of equality and self-determination by the annulment of the Ogoja Province in 1967.
We decry the incompatibility inherent in our present association in the Cross River State. We seek to regain
the opportunity we lost with the creation of the southern Eastern State in 1967. We seek the restoration of
Ogoja to the status we occupied among the twenty four (24) Provinces of Nigeria prior to May 27, 1967.

5.6        There are two distinct groups in the Cross River State namely; the Efik-speaking people, of Old
Calabar Province and the Ogoja people of Old Ogoja Province. The issue therefore, is clearly the creation of
two States from Cross River State. The approximate geo-political boundaries are clear. We pray the Head of
State to create the States along these boundaries.


6.1        The Local Government Areas

Presently, the area of interest, which extends from Ugep in the south to Obanliku in the north consist of nine
(9) Local Government Areas. The nine existing Local Government areas include, from North to South,
Obanliku, Obudu, Ogoja, Yala, Boki, Ikom, Obubra, Yakurr, and Abi. Other major centres of population and
areas to constituted into separate Local Government Areas include from North to South, Bekwarra, Ukelle,
Afi, Eastern Boki; Western Boki;Agbo; Bansara; Mbube, Etung, Utugwang, Utanga, Adun-Okum and Emina.

6.2        Each of these suggested development areas is inhabited by at least 111,429
homogenous people with a common dialect; each area covers at least 1170 sq. km of fertile agricultural land;
and further, the people of each area share a common socio-cultural and administrative heritage. We are,
therefore humbly presenting a Request for the creation of twenty-one (21) Local Government Areas from
these Areas.

6.3        At the end of the exercise, the proposed Ogoja State would consist of
twenty-one Local Government Areas namely; Obanliku, Obudu, Bekwarra, Ogoja, Yala, Ukelle, Agbo;
Eastern Boki; Ikom, Afi, Obubra, Yakurr, Emina Bahumono Western Boki; Utugwang; Mbube; Utanga;
Bansara; Etung and Adun-Okum.


We are fully conscious of Security and Economic implications in the choice of a State Capital. We are
however, reconciled to the singleness of our purpose and the resolve to attain our goals, by offering our full
cooperation to the Presidency and the Committee in the discharge of the requested State creation exercise.

6.5        In our diversity, we have found a common identity in being called, addressed,
and treated as Ogoja people. In the State, as in the rest of the country, the calm, honest, and friendly
disposition of the Ogoja man is characteristic. From the physical to the psychological profile, we are easily
identified as Ogoja people. It is therefore, a unanimous proposition that the issue of a State Capital be
considered within the context of the precedence, as well as the overall security and economic implications to
the Nation.

6.6        Our Request, thus seeks an Ogoja State having twenty-one (21) Local
Government Areas, with OGOJA Town as the State Capital.

7.        PRAYER

Whereas, we have clearly demonstrated a persistent and peaceful quest for a separate State for the people of

Whereas, we have demonstrated with facts and figures that the Ogoja State is as
viable as any existing State;

Whereas, we have demonstrated, and the available statistics also demonstrate, the complete neglect of the
area and the peoples of Ogoja by both the Federal and State Administrations;

Whereas, we are satisfied that the destiny of the people of Ogoja can only be charted by the people of Ogoja
for the people of Ogoja, in a separate Ogoja State;

Whereas, the approximate geo-political boundaries of the Old Ogoja Province are clear;

Whereas, there is unanimity in the quest for a separate State, having twenty-one (21) Local Government

Whereas, through the political development of Nigeria, the people of Ogoja have made enormous sacrifices
for the maintenance of peace and the territorial integrity of our Nation;

Whereas, our Request seeks to permanently afford the Ogoja people the right environment for self-
determination and actualization;

We, the undersigned persons of the Old Ogoja Province and on behalf of the people of the Old Ogoja Province
and ourselves, humbly pray the President and the National Assembly to favourably consider our Request for
the creation of the OGOJA STATE.

Thank you very kindly for the opportunity given us to address our Request to the President and National
Assembly of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Yours very sincerely,
(For and on behalf of the People
of the Old OGOJA Province).


1.        AGBO                        Itigidi, Adadama, Ekureku 1, Ekureku 11,
Imabana & Ikpalegwa

2.        YAKURR                Bikobiko, Ijiman, Ijom, Ikpakpitt,

3.        EMINA                Inyima, Ajere, Afrekpe/Epenti, Ntan,
Abanakpai, Nkpolo/Ukpawen, Mkpani/
Agoi and Assiga.

4.        OBUBRA                Appiapum; Ofumbongha/Yala, Obubra Urban.

5.        EASTERN BOKI        Bateriko, Beebo/Bumaji, Katchuan

6.        WESTERN BOKI        Abo Boje, Ogep Osokom, Ekpashi Osokom,
Kakwagom/Bawop & Oku/Borum Njua

7.        IKOM                        Ikom Urban, Yala-Ikom; Olulumo;

8.        AFI                        Nde, Nta/Nselle & Nnam/Abanyum

9.        ETUNG                Northern Etung; Southern Etung

10.        BAHUMONO                Ediba, Ebom, Afafanyi/ Igonigoni

11.        UTANGA                Utanga, Basang, Becheve

12.        ADUN-OKOM        Adun, Ochon, Ofodua, Ovonum, Ababene

13.        OBANLIKU                Bebi, Bishiri North, Bishiri South,
Bisu; Basang, Busi, Bendi 1, Bendi11,  
Becheve & Utanga

14.        OBUDU                Urban1, Urban 11, Ipong, Begiading,


15.        OGOJA                Urban 1, Urban 11, Nkum Iborr, Nkum Irede, Ndok.

16.        BEKWARRA                Afrike, Abuochiche1, Abuochiche 11, Gakem.

17.        YALA                        Okpoma, Yahe, Okuku, Echumofana, Gabu,

18.        UKELLE                Wanokom, Wanihem, Wanikade, & Mfuma / Izilaga

19.        UTUGWANG                Utugwang North, Utugwang Central, Utugwang South, Alege/Ubang; Ukpe

20.        MBUBE                Idum, Ekumtak, Odajie, Egbe, Ojirim, Ogberia, Nkim

21.        BANSARA                Bansara, Mfom 1 & 11, Nwang, Mbok, Emandak.

Francis Ibe MOGU's B.A. Graduating Essay - May/June 1987 -

                                     THE TITLE IS:




                                        A THESIS

                               SUBMITTED TO THE

                    DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH AND
                               LITERARY STUDIES,
                      UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR,
                            CALABAR – NIGERIA


                             MOGU, FRANCIS IBE
                                REG. NO. 83/11046


                                                                                                      MAY, 1987

                                                        APPROVAL PAGE

This thesis is approved for the Department of English and Literary Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar.


1.        SUPERVISOR……                                READER
DR (MRS) EBELE EKO                        ………………….
SIGNATURE……….                                SIGNATURE…..
DATE.                                                DATE………….

PROFESSOR CHIDI IKONNE                …………………………..
SIGNATURE...                                        SIGNATURE……………
DATE...............                                        DATE……………………


To the Memory of my departed Parents: Mr Simon Patrick Ijing Mogu, Sr. and Mrs Julia Maria Nkom
Mogu, Sr. May their Souls rest in peace of Jesus Christ our Lord and Saviour, Amen!

The research is also for Aunty Ebele Eko, Emem Udofia and all the Lecturers and Students in the Department
of English and Literary Studies who have in the past four years been moulding me.



TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                             1        
APPROVAL                                                                                                                               2    
DEDICATION                                                                                                                           3     
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                           4   
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                                       5
ABSTRACT                                                                                                                                6
THESIS STATEMENT                                                                                                              7
INTRODUCTION                                                                                                                 8-13

The Themes of Rootlessness in
Mine Boy and A Walk in the Night                                14-21     

Manifestations of Rootlessness in
Tell Freedom and In the Fog of the Season's End.    23-29
CHAPTER THREE - CONCLUSION                                                                                       30

I am deeply grateful to the following people for their help throughout my stay in Unical and especially in the
writing of this thesis: Dr (Mrs) Ebele Eko, Mr and Mrs Francis Ganyi, Professor Chidi Ikonne, Mrs. Rukmini
Vanamali, Mr. and Mrs. Ben Imo Eshiet, Ajayi Folurunsho, Dickson Ukegbu, Dr. (Mrs.) Emelia Oko and
those who in one way or the other made it possible for me to complete my Degree Programme, especially my
late parents, my brother Vincent and my sister, Helen.

In addition, I want to thank the following people for their moral support: Mike Ejims, Martins Amaechi, James
Eban Ngaji, Emma Okah, Afam Nwokedi, Thomas Afanga Wodar, Patrick Igbaji, Mike Umole, John Oyolola,
Mike Obi, Ndoma, Enobong, Julius Ashandipeheye Adie, Mrs. Julia Omang and Miss Emem Udofia. I cherish
them all and may God Almighty be with them forever.

This essay takes a closer look at the manifestations of rootlessness in four works from South Africa. These
works are a microcosm of the Society in South Africa – South Africa as seen by Peter Abrahams and Alex la
Guma. Rootlessness as a phenomenon, is caused by the inhuman policy of apartheid entrenched by Boers
(Afrikaners) in South Africa.

The essay is an effort at a comparative study of the theme of rootlessness in Abrahams’
Mine Boy and Tell
, and La Guma’s A Walk in the Night and In the Fog of the Season’s End.

The introduction to the essay examines the phenomenon known as ‘rootlessness’ and links it to its root cause.
It also examines briefly the lives of the authors and the subject matter i.e. rootlessness caused by apartheid.

The second chapter analyses the manifestations of rootlessnes in
Tell Freedom and In the Fog of the Season's
. The emphasis on both Chapters is on the characters and situations in the texts.

Chapter Three is the Conclusion. It summarizes what has already been said in the preceding chapters and
joins Abrahams and La Guma in recommending a solution to the phenomenon of rootlessness in South Africa –
the abolition of apartheid, recognition of true equality among all races and the building of a free society based
on people without emphasis on skin colour.

                                      THESIS STATEMENT


Rootlessness means the lack of a base for existence. It is a situation where one cannot fit oneself into a
historical, cultural, economic and political setting among people in a given society. Under this phenomenon,
one’s life is regimented from birth to death. The situation in South Africa serves as an ideal example of
rootlessness. Blacks and other non-whites are affected most by this trend. Rootlessness forms the core of
apartheid: the system of racial discrimination that upholds white supremacy to all other races in South Africa.
Rootlessness is manifested in the prevalent lack of a proper identity among South African non-whites.
Namelessness prevails under this trend. Rootlessness is also manifested in the forced removal of people to
barren areas known as ‘home lands’. ‘Home lands’ in South Africa include Transkei, Ciskei and

Writers as Athol Fugard have mirrored the rootless phenomenon in their writing, although none of these
writers based their research on the theme of rootlessness in the works of Peter Abrahams and Alex la Guma.
In Sizwe Bansi is Dead, Fugard depicts this crippling phenomenon. The characters are identified by numbers
instead of names. Hence, Sizwe Bansi – the protagonist, easily replaces his expired pass book with the one
belonging to a dead man – Robert Zwelinzima, without any repercussions. Bansi runs away from his home town
in search of a better life elsewhere. All these are manifestations of rootlessness.¹
Rootlessness makes Blacks to feel like strangers in South Africa – their fatherland. The estrangement in turn
manifests itself in the Violent response to the situations by Blacks and other non-Whites. A large number of
non-White writers have gone to exile, including Dennis Brutus, Bessie Head, Lewis Nkosi and the two authors
whose works are being reviewed – Peter Abrahams and Alex La Guma.
The rootlessness phenomenon also manifests itself in other forms such as frustration, drug-addiction and
death through suicide. Bessie Head took to excessive drinking, while Arthur Nortje and Nat Nakasa
committed suicide².
Man has ceased to be
Man has become beast
       Man has become prey…
       Where is my refuge?
Where am I safe? ³
These lines from Oswald Mtshali’s poem “Nightfall in Soweto”, sum up the situation governed by
rootlessness in South Africa – a situation where human beings are exposed to untold abuses and hardships.
Another poem, “Taken for a Ride”, by Stanley Motjuwadi, also describes the terror and fear that underlie the
existence of Blacks in South Africa as a result of apartheid which has uprooted them from their soil. The
relevant lines for the purpose of this essay are reproduced here:
I get my cue
From the glint in the cop’s eye…
So I have to find it.

Without it I’m lost, with it I’m lost
I hate it. I nurse it,
My pass, my everything.

The doors of the Kwela-Kwela gape,
…like Jonah’s whale.
I take a free ride4
Apartheid reduces the average Black man in South Africa to a non-entity; ‘a figure’ to be molested and
harassed by White men and the police. The system is enhanced by the use of the PASS – a type of document
that contains the identity of a person and restricts his movement to certain areas. PASSES make it easier for
the police to control and monitor the activities of Black people. A PASS diminishes the identity of the
possessor as it emphasizes number instead of names. Failure to Produce a PASS on demand by law
enforcement agents leads one to prison. This is illustrated in the poem above by Motjuwadi.
Samuel Omo Asein has written about the revolutionary vision in Alex la Guma’s novels5. Similarly, Robert
Green wrote about politics of subversion in La Guma’s In the Fog of the Season’s End. He also wrote an
introduction to La Guma’s short stories6. Another critic, Abdul Jan Mohamed wrote about the literary and
political functions of marginality in the colonial situation, using La Guma’s as a case study7. Kolawole
Ogungbesan on the other hand, focused his analysis on the works of Peter Abrahams, with a view to
portraying the guiding consciousness behind the works and the rationale behind the author’s exit from South
Africa8. Michael Wade’s enquiry dwells on the social situation in the novels of Abrahams9. None of these
critics’ research focuses on ‘the theme of rootlessness’ in either the works of Peter Abrahams or Alex La
Guma. Consequently, this analysis is of great significance because of the theme’s far-reaching effect on
people in South Africa. Rootlessness is a uniting theme in all the texts being considered in this essay.
Characters in the four works examined here manifest the rootless phenomenon.
The research compares scenes and characters from the works of Abrahams and La Guma being considered. It
is based on the rootless phenomenon among South Africans because of Uniqueness of the theme to the
individual man. The analysis of this theme is also a way of joining in the struggle to dismantle apartheid in
South Africa. The exploration in the essay though limited to situations and characters in texts, and though
literary in outlook, has sociological importance. This is so because what is narrated and portrayed in these
works is not limited to fiction. It is related to real life situations in South Africa. As a matter of fact, one of the
texts for this research, Tell Freedom, mirrors Peter Abrahams’ childhood upbringing in South Africa.
Moreover, rootlessness resulting from racial discrimination has existed in places such as the United States,
Britain and the Caribbeans, but it is only in South Africa that this discrimination is recognized and enforced by
law10. This then makes the South African situation – and indeed, this theme, unique.
The uprooting of Blacks from their environment will be examined at various levels, such as the physical,
psychological and symbolic.
The forced removal and settlement of Blacks in ‘homelands’ and slums, forms an aspect of physical
rootlessness. The indoctrination of Black people into myths of white supremacy, the relegation of the Black
culture and the concept of ‘Black inferior’, fall into the category of psychological uprootness. Similarly,
characters and situations in the works being examined in this research are a symbolic representation of the
uprooted peoples of South Africa
A proper perusal of the works that form the basis of this research shows that the various cultures that exist in
South Africa fragmented. There is no common and complete culture. Moreover, there is a constrained attempt
by Whites to impose their own culture on other races.
The race problem which causes rootlessness in the land, forms the theme in the writing of most South African
authors. Abrahams and La Guma have this them as their centre piece. By aligning themselves to the problems
facing their country South African authors tend to follow Frantz Fanon’s prescription that a writer should
identify with the problems of his society11. Echoing Fanon, La Guma asserts that: “Literature cannot be
divorced from the realities of a writer’s life and environment”12.
Abrahams believes in ‘westernization’ as the solution to the race problem in his country. He sees
“Westernization as the only valid destiny open to Africans in their quest for true freedom of the spirit”13.
This, however, is opposed to La Guma’s prescription of violent revolutionary struggle to end apartheid and
achieve political freedom. La Guma says:
Step by step our people must acquire both
the techniques of war and the means for such
a war. It is not only the advanced ones, but
the entire people that must be prepared,
Peter Abrahams was born in Vrededorp – Johannesburg Suburb, in 1919. He lost his father at an early age,
and his mother had to fend fir him and the other children. His mother was ‘Coloured’ – a descendant of the
early contact between Blacks and Whites in the Cape area of South Africa. His father’s lineage is traced to
the Ethiopian imperial dynasty. As a result of problems posed by apartheid, Abrahams left South Africa at the
age of twenty. Since then, he has returned there only once to do a documentary report for the British
Broadcasting Corporation (B.B.C.). Much of his life has been spent writing. His vision of ‘man without colour’
is reflected in his writing. He has lived in exile since he left South Africa15.
Alex La Guma was born in 1925 in Cape Town, to ‘Coloured’ parents. He joined the banned South African
communist party early in his life. His father, Jimmy La Guma, was a member of the central committee of the
communist party which was banned in 1950. Even before he started writing, Alex La Guma was an activist who
believed in equality among the races. He also believed in justice, equity and fairplay irrespective of the colour,
race or position among people. He was imprisoned various times, nobably as a defendant in the South African
Treason Trial of the early 1960s. After his release in 1966, he left for exile in Britain and later moved to Cuba,
where he died in 198516.
The commonest characteristics shared by Abrahams and La Guma include the fact that they are ‘oloureds’.
Both of them are also writers who share a similar yearning for the abolition of apartheid, although their
approach differs. Whereas La Guma is a revolutionary writer who went to prison and upon his release, and
exit from South Africa said:
I, as a South African writer am prepared
to run guns and to hold up radio stations,
because in South Africa that is what we are
faced with, whether we are writers or whether
we are common labourers17,
Abrahams never went to prison and is not as revolutionary as La Guma in his writing.
Abrahams and La Guma have both been uprooted from South Africa and they are exiles abroad. They have
been uprooted not only in the physical, but also in the psychological sense. On the physical level, both of them
left South Africa to sojourn abroad. Psychologically, while abroad, both of them still had nostalgic feelings
towards South Africa, hence they joined in the struggle to end apartheid. Socially they could not relate
themselves to their peers in South Africa because of the gap created by their long stay in exile. In the
countries where they were sojourning, Abrahams and La Guma also feel alienated and rootless because of
their patriotism towards South Africa – their home.
Critics have accused Abrahams and La Guma of not being of African or European descent as a result of their
being ‘coloureds’. ‘Coloureds’ in South Africa fall into the category of people that suffer dual discrimination.
They are discriminated against Whites as well s by Blacks. But this in itself, is apartheid being manifested.
‘Coloured’ people have also been uprooted by the apartheid syndrome in South Africa. They have been
uprooted in the sense that they cannot trace a straight line of ancestry either to Africa or to Europe. Apartheid
regulations mar efforts to research into their past.
Other critics assert that since Abrahams and La Guma are ‘coloureds’ and therefore exempt from the rigid
application of apartheid regulations, they see no reason why these writers should voice dissent and resentment
to the system, pointing out that they are ill-equipped for their crusade as a result of their stay in exile. But
these are essentially pro-apartheid critics18.
This paper aims therefore to show that rootlessness in South Africa is caused by the obnoxious system of
apartheid – a system which turns South Africa citizens into exiles and aliens in their own country.
Although the brunt of the sorrow and deprivation resulting from apartheid is borne by black people other races
are not left out of this human tragedy. ‘Coloureds’ and Indians are also affected by the system. Even the
Whites, who oppress, cannot escape from the backlash of apartheid. They too have in a sense become
‘rootless’ because of their fear and uneasiness. The violence embroiling South Africa is not leaving out whites
only. As a result, their hope of a full, useful existence in South Africa, is increasingly, being aborted. Alf
Wannerburg (a South African writer) says in his “Echoes”, that “whites fear us because they are ignorant of


1 Ebele Eko, Lecture Notes on Athol Fugard’s Sizwe Bansi is Dead (UNICAL, 1987).

2 Christopher Heywood (ed.) Aspects of South African Literature (London: Heinemann Educational Books
Ltd, 1976) PP. 89-155.

3 Senanu and Vincent, A Selection of African Poetry (London: Longman Group Ltd, 1976), P. 196.

4 Ebele Eko, Handouts on selected Poems from South Africa in the‘South African Literature Course’
(UNICAL 1987), P.1.

5 Samuel Omo Asein, “The Revolutionary vision in Alex La Guma’s Novels”, in LOTUS No.24/25 – 2-3/75
(Cairo: Permanent Bureau of Afro-Asian writers, April - Sept, 1975), P. 3.

6 Robert Green, “Alex La Guma’s In the Fog of the Season’s End: The Politics of Subversion,” in UMOJA,
No.3 (Summer, 1979).

Abdul R. Jan Mohamed, “Alex La Guma: The Literary and Political Functions of Marginality in the Colonial
Situation”, in
BOUNDARY 11 (1-2) 1982 - 3.

Kolawole Ogungbesan, The Writing of Peter Abrahams (London: Hodder and Stoughton Ltd, 1979), P.3.

9 Michael Wade, “The Novels of Peter Abrahams”, in CRITIQUE, X1-3 (December 1968) PP. 54-60.

10 Heywood, PP.85 - 97.

11 Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (London: Mac Gibbon and Kee, 1965), P. 87.

12 Omo Asein, P. 10.

13 Ogungbesan, P. 3.

14 Omo Asein, P. 10.

15 Ogungbesan, PP. 1-2.

16 Jan Mohamed, PP. 272-3.

17 Omo Asein, P. 10

18 Ebele Eko, Lectures on South African Literature (UNICAL, 1987).

19 Richard Rive (ed.)
QUARTET (London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd, 1974) P. 53.

                                          CHAPTER ONE

  I am thy father’s spirit;
  Doom’d for a certain term to walk the night,
  And for the day confined to fast in fires,
  Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature
  Are burnt and purged away¹.

This quotation, taken from William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, serves as the preamble to Alex La Guma’s A
Walk in the Night. It also depicts in a few words, the state of rootlesness that governs the South Africans
Situation today. Therefore, the quotation, though not meant originally for South Africa, is permanent to a full
and proper understanding of this essay. The massage of the quotation is central to the events in A Walk in the
Night, Mine Boy and indeed, the other texts billed for analysis in this essay.
In Mine Boy, Xuma the central character leaves his parents, relations and village in the North and goes to
Sojourn in the City. By this singular act, he abandons his roots and becomes rootless in the City. He discovers
to his displeasure that in the City everybody goes about his business.
Nobody cares about what you do so long as it does not affect him. There is
scarcely any communal feelings, especially when compared to what exists in the rural environment. Xuma’s
identity as a person who is mature and capable of managing his own affairs is lost as soon as he comes to the
city. He is just referred to as ‘Xuma’ and no more. We are not told his parents’ names. He becomes
completely absorbed with life in the city and rarely thinks about his village in ‘the North’. Xuma’s first
encounter with the police shows him how rootless he has become: he believes in his innocence, and when told
to run, refuses, adding, “but we have done nothing”². He does not realize that under apartheid laws it is not
necessary for one to commit a crime before he is brutalised, arrested and imprisoned.
In order to stave the trend of rootlessness, Xuma asserts himself in every endeavor he finds himself in. He
exhibits strength and purposeful leadership in the mines where he is made ‘Boss Boy’ or ‘GANG LEADER’
for his boss Mr Paddy O’shea – ‘the Red One’. In spite of these attempts however, luck is against Xuma. His
attempt to befriend and marry a decent and educated girl proves to be abortive because she desires the things
of the white man which Xuma cannot provide for her.
Rootlessness as a phenomenon is not confined to individuals; the environment is also rootless as is manifested
in A Walk in the Night and Mine Boy. The urban environment, as mirrored in these works, is rootless and
superficial. The first few paragraphs of A Walk in the Night, evoke the chaos of the streets of Cape Town as
Michael Adonis alights from the train which has brought him from his work place:

  The young man dropped from the trackless
  tram… ignoring the stream of late-afternoon
  traffic rolling in from the Suburbs,
  bobbed and ducked the cars and buses, the
  big, rumbling delivery trucks, deaf to the
  shouts, and curses of the drivers … He
  looked right through them, refusing to see
  them …Around him the buzz and hum of
  voices and the growl of traffic blended into
  one solid mutter of sound which he only half
  heard, his thoughts …³

Adonis, the central character in this story is returning from his workplace where he has been ‘fired’ for
‘answering’ back to a white man. Prompted by Willieboy – another major character in the story, Michael
Adonis replies:
  “Strolling again. Got pushed out of my
  job at the factory --- Answered back to
  an effing white rooker. Foreman”4.

As Adonis is fired from his workplace becomes rootless. He now has nowhere to go and earn a living and, out
of frustration he kills ‘Uncle’ Doughty – the Irish entertainer. Later he joins bad company – Foxy’s gang.
Adonis’ action result from the generic nature of race – relations which allow the individual to exist as a non-
entity and a figure with an unfulfilled and crippling life. In the general manner of the trend of rootlessness,
Adonis joins Foxy’s gang to fill the position left vacant by ‘Sockies’ without any significant alterations in the
original intention or function of the act of robbery planned for the evening. In addition, Adonis kills Doughty,
and instead willieboy is taken for the murderer without any fuss – the result of the crisis of identity and the
loss of individuality.
The people portrayed in this novella appear to be robots being manipulated by other people for the realization
of mean, selfish goals. Abdul Jan Mohamed in his analysis of Alex La Guma‘s works, indicates that –   “the
external world (in
A Walk in the Night)

  is felt to be alienated from human activity
-        society is viewed as a static, if
          oppressive, thing in itself. Human will and
  initiative have been crushed”5.

The society mirrored here has brought about a radical shrinking of human potentiality, and this is reflected in
the way the characters respond to situations: Michael Adonis vents his anger on a wrong person for his
wrongful dismissal from work. Willieboy runs away in panic and is later believed to be the murderer of
Doughty. He is later shot by a white policeman in irrelevant revenge on his troublesome wife. Here, indeed, is
a collection of accidents and mistaken identities.
In discussing the issue of rootlessness, Kolawole Ogungbesan states in his The writing of Peter Abrahams,
  “Each black character in Mine Boy needs his
  full name. By bestowing on each of them
  only one name, Abrahams wants to emphasise
  that individuality is denied to the Blacks in
  South Africa, that these characters are but
  representatives of millions of their race”6.

Hence, we find Daddy – one of the elderly characters we meet in Mine Boy, groping about in search of his
identity. In his youth, Daddy was an ideal and desirable person, but in old age he becomes barely tolerable – a
representative of thousands of blackmen who come to the city to find money and the ‘good life’, but end in
abject poverty and squalor. The city destroys his greatest potentials and becomes “an incurable alcoholic who
goes mad when denied a drink, and sleeps in his own urine”7. It is only after his death that ‘Daddy’
successfully obtained what he had been searching for all his life – his identity. At the head of his grave was put
a little cross, with a number under which was written his name: FRANCIS NDABULA. Daddy’s experiences
in Mine Boy can be paralled to ‘Uncle’ Doughty’s experiences I A Walk in the Night. Like ‘Daddy’,’ Uncle’
Doughty drank to drown his sorrows and to escape from the unpleasant reality. Both ‘Daddy’ and ‘’Doughty’
exhibited great potentials in their youth. Doughty performed as an entertainer and an actor in England and
Australia. Similarly, ‘Daddy’ was strong, rich, feared, respected and had many friends when he first came to
the city. As Ma Plank recounts at Daddy’s funeral:

  When he walked down the street women stopped
  and looked at him and men greeted him.
  Everyone respected his wisdom. And they came
  to him when they were in trouble and he
  helped them. Even the white ones respected
  him - He had money then, and many friends.
  Men thought it an honour to be his friend
  and women longed for him. And when there
  was trouble about the PASSES he stood at
  the head of the people and he spoke to
  hundreds of them and the police feared him”8.

Daddy and Doughty later became drunkards, alienated, and died through similar circumstances: accidents.
Daddy was killed by a car. Doughty was inadvertently killed by a drunk and frustrated Michael Adonis. Both
of them achieved popularity and attained recognition or identity only at death. Their true identity was restored
to them at death. Prior to their death, everyone seemed to have ignored them to the dictates of the
In Mine Boy also, we meet a very strong and energetic woman, Leah. Her rootless situation is spelt out in
clear but sober tones. The society she lives in (the city) destroys her original humanity. However, she still
possesses basic human kindness. Xuma’s first encounter with her shows this aspect of Leah. Her sojourn in
the city and its destructive impact on her can be compared to Hazel’s experience in A Walk in the Night.
Hazel gave one “the impression of something expensive abandon on a junk heap”9. Hazel is completely
uprooted by the city. She is not educated, but aspires after things meant for ‘educated whites’. She smears
lipstick in an unguarded and excess manner, “so that it looked stark as a wound in her face”10A. Hazel cannot
find a genuine lover. She attempts to fill this gap by frequenting ‘metro’ (theatre) to watch films such as “Love
me Tonight”. Similarly, Leah in Mine Boy cannot maintain a firm and lasting affair with a man. She keeps
Dladla because “a woman gets lonely for a plaything10B”. She also discourages Xuma from cultivating an
affair with her. Leah’s inability to cultivate a strong love relationship with a man is reflected in her
stepdaughter, Eliza. Eliza is completely uprooted from her society. She is also alienated. Leah tells Xuma that
Eliza is suffering from the ‘sickness of the city’. Eliza is educated and knows exactly what is wrong with her.
She explains this ‘sickness’ to be something out of control and tells Xuma:

  “I am no good--- it is because I want the
  things of the white people --- I want to
  be like they are, you understand Xuma¹¹”.

Eliza does not belong to the white world to which she aspires because of her colour.
Neither can she fit into the Black world because of her attitude. So, she is completely uprooted from her
society. Her beauty and her education mean that her aspirations are higher than those permitted by the colour
situation in her country. Her alienation can be likened to that of Joe – the beach comber in A Walk in the
Night. Joe likes the beach, but the apartheid laws make it increasingly difficult for him to stroll along the
beach in the daytime, so he has to sneak there only at night to refresh himself and with some luck, catch crabs,
snails, shrimps and fish:

  “Somewhere the young man, Joe, made his way
  towards the sea, walking alone through the
  starlit darkness --- he would be close to
  the smell of the ocean and wade through the
  chill, comforting water---”¹².

Joe is a symbol of acute rootlessness. He has nobody to care for him. His father ran away, leaving him and the
other children to their poor mother. They were later ejected from their lodgings and after this incident, Joe ran
away from the rest of the family and survived on breaking rocks for sale and catching snails and shrimps for
food. He also begged from other people “from door to door for pieces of stale bread”¹³ in order to survive.
Members of Foxy’s gang earned a living through Violence. When we first meet them in A Walk, they are
planning a robbery. Instead of normal names, they have American gangster names such as ‘Foxy’, ‘Sockies’,
‘Toyer’, ‘the scarfaced boy’, ‘the boy with the skull – and – crossbones ring’; names that are suggestive of
Pirates at Sea, wild animals and rogues. These young burglars are symbolic of the vast majority of uprooted
people who have no past and no future in South Africa: they live for the present only. By their nature they are
not harmful but the society has turned them into what they have become – rogues. The conditions surrounding
their existence which make it impossible for them to have the bare necessities of life forced them to adopt
violence as a means for survival.
The South African white minority government promotes violence through its harsh and discriminatory policies,
and these in turn uproot and alienate the inhabitants from the surroundings. The police and the military are
harnessed to the full to suppress non whites. Violence and police brutality which form the main avenues for
uprooting and brutalising people under apartheid laws, form a coherent and consistent theme in
Mine Boy and
A Walk in the Night.
The police assume a supernatural dimension in both works.
They are always available to arrest and detain opponents of apartheid. The works depict that more often, the
police arrest and punish the wrong people – people who are innocent of the offence in question, like Willieboy
in A Walk, and Xuma in Mine Boy. The pursuit of Xuma mounted by the police at the scene of the fight
between two coloured men in Mine Boy parallels to the meticulous and untiring pursuit and subsequent arrest
also by the police, of Willieboy in A Walk. The total devotion of the police to the implementation of apartheid
laws turn the inhabitants into “the prey; the quarry to be run down by the marauding beast let loose by cruel
nightfall from his cage of death”14. The portrayal of the police brutality and the violence brought about by
apartheid by Abrahams and La Guma, makes these two works “the fullest, harshest picture of the miseries of
urban life, the grim marriage of Urban impersonality with totalitarian repression for the poor in South Africa”
In their pursuit and arrest of Willieboy the police exhibited the highest form of injustice and brutality, so that,
after locking him in the van, they stopped over for some refreshment at a café, urged on by Constable Raalt:

  ‘Pull up at the Portuguese, will you? I want to get some smokes’.
‘Jesus, man’, the driver said. ‘We haven’t
got time to get cigarettes. We’ve got to get
this jong to the station’.
‘Ach, there’s lots of time, man. That
bastard isn’t going to die yet. These
hotnots are tough. Stop at the café, man”16.

n the van meanwhile, Willieboy was writhing in agony and was gradually approaching the point of death:

“He reached down to where the pain was worst
and felt the stickiness of his clothes and then
the bleeding mouth of the wound where the
bullet had torn through him --- his fingers
and hands seemed to have thickened and begun
to lose all sense of feeling --- (His eyes)
remained opened although he could no longer

Willieboy later died as a result of the delay in the cafe by the policemen conveying him to the station. He was
already dead before they arrived at the station.
In Mine Boy, violence and police brutality is manifested in the miners’ protest against mine conditions which
resulted to accidents and deaths. The miners have been uprooted from their places of origin and they came to
the mine to dig all the gold that helped to enrich whites. In the process they lost their identity, their families
and dependants were banned from joining them in the mines, they lived in very deplorable conditions – they
were completely rootless. Yet, when they rose up to demand for better conditions of service after an accident
in the mines which had claimed the lives of some miners, the police stepped in to unleash havoc and violence:

  “Two pick – up vans swept into the mine yard
  and policemen swarmed out of them--- Xuma saw
  a policeman strike paddy across the back of the
  neck while another grabbed his arms and twisted
  them behind him—something stung his left
  shoulder and made his left arm limp with
  pain--- He felt a blow at the back of his
  head and a trickle of warm blood running
  down his shirt”18.

The mine owner did not sympathise with the miners in their yearnings for better working conditions, so that,
after this incident, the miners lost their jobs. And here we see the phenomenon of rootlessness manifesting
itself. The loss of their jobs in the mine means that the miners have lost their means of livelihood – and by
extension their dependants have nobody to depend on for survival.
Acute rootlessness is also reflected in people like J.P. Williamson (Johannes) in Mine Boy and Franky
Lorenzo in A Walk. These are characters that held much promise for prosperous and bright future, but who
were limited and uprooted by their society and the environment. J.P. Williams in a sober mood, was quiet
gentle and hard working young man. The crippling and limiting nature of the environment caused Johannes to
resort to drinking and cursing. He worked hard, but in spite of this he failed to live a fulfilling and happy life.
He could not marry and raise a family. In addition he could not even save enough money to meet his basic
needs and he resorted to frequent borrowing. He later died in a mine accident and was buried without rites like
a dog. Xuma his friend and the other miners were even denied the chance to attend his funeral. To crown the
situation, the mine owners did not care to give any form of pension and gratuity to Johannes’ beneficiaries
such as his girl friend Lena.

Franky Lorenzo was also a very hard-working man. He lived in a tenement room with his wife and six children.
Inspite of his hardwork, Lorenzo was not paid commensurately. His energy and sweat was wasted on ventures
that benefited only whites. He worked in a coal mine:

  “ The lines in his face, around the mobile
  mouth, and under the dark, deepsocketed eyes
  were full of old coal dust which he had
  never succeeded in washing away---His hands
  clasped behind his head now, were hard and
  horny and calloused from wielding a shovel
  ---His wife, had, a few minutes earlier,
  announced that she was once more pregnant
  and he was trying to decide whether it was
  goodnews or bad news19.

News of pregnancy from your wife should normally make you happy, but Franky Lorenzo was undecided here
because of the poverty impose upon him by apartheid – a policy which crippled his potentials by over-tasking
and exploiting him, yet forcing him and his family to live in one room, packed together like sardines in a tin or
like rats in a hole.
Roootlessness affects the situation mirrored in the works, and a look at the two novels shows the reader that
this situation is abnormal. The atmosphere in the two works is characterised by constant fear, violence, hunger
and oppression. The people we meet in Mine Boy and A Walk have generally been dehumanized. Instead of
basic humanity, we have animalistic response to situations by these people. Adonis kills Doughty like a
cockroach or mosquito, but inadvertently. The police kill Willieboy through violence without really finding out
whether he is guilty of the crime of murder. In the same way, the police beat up the revolting miners without
finding out the cause of their revolt.    


1 Alex La Guma, A Walk in the Night (London: Heinemann Educational Ltd, 1968), P. viii. All subsequent
quotes from the text are to this edition.

2 Peter Abrahams, Mine Boy (London: Heinemann Educational Ltd, 1963), P. 16. All subsequent quotes from
the text are to this edition.

3 Robert Green, “Chopin in the Getto: The Short stories of Alex La Guma” in W.L.W.E. PP. 14-15.

4 La Guma, P. 4

5Abdul R. Jan M
ohamed, “Alex La Guma: The Literary and Political Functions of Marginality”,
BOUNDARY 11 (1-2), 1982-3,
PP. 277-8.

6 Kolawole Ogungbesan,
The Writing of Peter Abrahams (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1979), P. 41.

7 Ogungbesan, P. 40.

8 Abrahams, PP. 80-1.

9LA Guma, P.22.

10ALa Guma, P. 22.

10BOgungbesan, P. 41.

11Ogungbesan, P. 42.

12La Guma, P. 96.

13La Guma, P. 69.

14Senanu and Vincent, ed.,
A Selection of African Poetry (London: Longman Group Ltd, 1976), P. 196.

15Green, P. 15.

16La Guma, P. 91.

17La Guma, PP. 91-4

18Abrahams, P. 182.

19La Guma, P. 35.

                                               CHAPTER TWO


The two texts being used for the purpose of this chapter differ in one major aspect, but the theme of
rootlessness is central to both works. Tell Freedom as an autobiography is not a novel, whereas, In the Fog of
the Season’s End, is a novel. Tell freedom narrates the story of the early life of its author, Peter Abrahams, in
South Africa. It is a factual account of the various encounters that Abrahams met with in South Africa and
which helped greatly to shape his vision about human relationship, especially as characterized by apartheid in
his home country, South Africa.
In the Fog if the Season’s End, falls into the category of the other two works also being analysed in this essay.
These other two works are Mine Boy and A Walk in the Night. In the Fog of the Season’s End, “examines the
nature of political commitment and its converse, political disengagement”¹. It seeks to understand why one
man is prepared to sacrifice himself and his family in the service of resistance, while another, living in identical
circumstances, is able to stand aside, stomaching injustice and discrimination. “The various responses
possible towards a totalitarian regime, ranging from martyrdom at one end to a political hedonism at the other,
constitute the structure of the work”².
Although the action moves to areas like the Elsburg location, Pietersburg, Cape Town and Durban, Tell
Freedom is essentially set in Vrededorp – Johannesburg Slum, where Abrahams was born. Tell Freedom is an
episodic work, but in spite of this, Kolawole Ogungbesan has said that “it is a very organized book”³, and that:

  “the unifying theme (is how) Abrahams
successfully escape from conditions
which have crippled his family; friends,
acquaintances from child-hood and most
others from his race”4.

In the Fog of the Season’s End,
on the other hand, is set in the Coloured areas of Cape Town. The novel tells
of the subterfuges of its hero, Beukes, member of a banned underground unnamed organization to escape the
security police:

Each night Beukes must sleep in a different room and
the various people encountered during his flight span,
in effect, the whole spectrum of available responses 5.

According to Robert Green, “In the Fog”, then, is a form of picaresque novel, an account of the hero’s travels
around Cape Town at the “end” of one “season”, four days in late summer, and the dawn of another season of
revolutionary struggle and the ultimate victory”6.

Tell Freedom, we are introduced early to a vivid picture of rootlessness. Even in infancy, Abrahams (Lee)
cannot relate himself fully to his parents, hence he escapes into his ‘raindrop world’:

“I pushed my nose and lip---. I was inside
the raindrop away from the misery of the cold
damp room. I was in a place of warmth and
sunshine, inside my raindrop world”7.

But, no matter how hard he tries to escape from reality into fantasy, the situation characterized by
rootlessness reasserts itself. He returns to the misery and poverty that surround his environment:

  The sound jerked me out of my raindrop
  world”8 .

The state of uprootedness is heightened further when Lee ( Peter Abrahams) loses his father (the family
breadwinner). As a result of the death of his father, Lee is uprooted physically (though temporarily) from his
Vrededorp Slum home and taken to Elsburg Location. Here, he had to begin afresh to grapple with the
problems posed by the new environment. And we are told that the location lay in a barren area:

“The location stood on a rising---.
On windy days the sand patches were
stirred to life and everything, in all
the houses, was coated with the fine, gritty
sand that hung like a thick mist over the place”9.

Just as Lee was getting used to Elsburg, he was uprooted again and taken to Vrededorp. Again, he had to
begin the painful task of adjusting to the hurly-burly of township life. These elements of rootlessness further
concretized the escapist tendency in Lee as events in the story were later to show.
Rootlessness is also manifested in Beukes – the hero of La Guma’s In the Fog. He cannot settle down in the
same house with his wife, neither can he sleep in the same house for two consecutive nights for fear of
detection and arrest. He travels around Cape Town, and his lack of a home and means of livelihood do not
deter him from his activities – the propagation of the ideals of the “organization”. Beukes has no parents, no
brothers; he cannot even stay to fend for his young and beautiful wife, Frances. Like some wild animal,
Beukes has to go to the zoo and rest to avoid detection and arrest. At other times, he finds solace in a museum
– places that are not meant for human beings to live in:

“It had been sunnier there. The light
splashed in through big windows illuminating
the glass eyes of the leopards, lions and
baboons like faulty radio valves. He had
been alone, a stranger in a lost, dead world”10.

his alien world uproots Beukes and turns him into a person who only succeeds in relating himself externally,
to an outside world that is “untrustworthy, potentially always a trap”11. La Guma portrays Beukes in this
external manner in order to heighten further, the picture of rootlessness caused by apartheid in South Africa.
And this in turn, makes Beukes a realistic figure. Under the stringent apartheid regulations in South Africa, it
is difficult for an individual to relate himself both internally and externally – and this inability by characters to
develop fully-rounded traits forms the core of rootlessness in South Africa.
Robert Green further asserts that:

  “Beukes’ most characteristic gesture is the
glance over the shoulder--- A street, a car,
even a buff envelope, may each hide a danger,
so that Beukes must constantly be evaluating
them in relation to his own threatened

The lack of an internal portrayal of Beukes by La Guma, further lend credence to the rootlessness that
characterize the typical struggling man in South Africa.
Tell Freedom, Lee (Peter Abrahams) the hero of the story, like Beukes in In the Fog of the Season’s End,
suffered under the oppressive apartheid system and then sought for an end to the system. At the close of the
two works, both Lee and Beukes were more determined to see to the dismantling of apartheid as conditions
worsen and more people become displaced and uprooted from their environment. At the outset of the two
works, the situations portrayed were relatively better. Disillusionment resulting from the strict application of
apartheid laws which caused rootlessness among Black South Africans had not attained the pitch it later did.
Lee left South Africa as a result of frustration with the apartheid situation, and Beukes narrowly escape police
arrest, but left with a gun shot and lost his colleague Elias Tekwane to the racist police.
Kolawole Ogungbesan has accused Abrahams of portraying wooden characters’ in his works. He asserts that,
the characters in
Tell Freedom are as wooden as in any of his novells”13.

What Ogungbesan is saying in essence, is that Abrahams cannot portray round characters in his works,
Tell Freedom. But, the people we meet in this autobiography fall into the general scheme of
rootlessness in South Africa. The characters do not have the opportunity to settle down in one place
permanently as a result of their acute poverty and their unrelenting struggle for survival. The environment
where these characters live is alien and sub-human. This consist of single rooms and shacks in apartments
governed by decay and disrepair. This is typical of slums specially created for the Black labour force by
Whites. This kind of environment contributes greatly to cripple the potentials of characters and in turn, denies
them a strong basis in life – a further manifestation of rootlessness. Here is Abrahams’ description of one
such Slum dwelling:

  An iron bedstead stood against the wall
  facing the door. Near it was the round
  table ---. An old unpainted wooden chair
  was near the table. Two tin trunks and a
  small cupboard in a corner made up the rest
  of the furniture. There was no ordinary
  window to the room---. My eyes grew accustomed
  to the fog. A thin, dark woman with
  long black hair sat propped up in an old bed
  in the far corner of the room. The bed was
  covered with pieces of rags---14.

The poverty that characterizes the average South African Black man, and which in turn makes him rootless, is
reinforced by La Guma in his description of the old woman who was ejected from her lodgings. The woman was
“thin and gnarled, with ropey hair the colour of used, dirty – white wool”15.
She also had “ancient liquid eyes (that) stared out of the brown, clawed face with a bright, fierce dignity”16.
The old woman set amidst her archaic and decaying belongings which consisted mainly of old furniture, junk
and household items that were demented in one way or another.
Rootlessness as reflected in the people discussed in these works, is heighten further by the apparent
discrepancies that exist in the living conditions between Blacks and Whites. White people appear to have
everything that is good, whereas Blacks have nothing. Abrahams says in Tell Freedom, that, “all that was
finest and best in life was ‘Reserved for Europeans only”17. Yet, in South Africa, Blacks do all the dirty, and
heavy work. Blacks dig gold from the bowels of the earth. And this gold serves the interest of whites and
sustains the South African economy. Inspite of their hard work, Blacks are paid very low wages; wages that do
not even meet up to half of their basic requirements for survival such as food, shelter and clothing. White
people do not show any appreciation to Blacks for their devotion to duty. In a conversation between Beatie
Adams (the Nursemaid) and Beukes, Beukes says:

  Yah. It’s like that with them. You raise the
  kids, change the nappies, give them the bottle.
  When they grow up they forget it and become
  part of the rest looking down on us 18.

Whites exploit Blacks and leave them totally disillusioned, hopeless, emotionally and physically uprooted from
their society with nowhere to look for solace and an anchor for support. The myth of white supremacy and
Black inferiority is natured by whites to white and Black people alike, at various levels of the people’s
development from their birth to their death, and this forms the core of apartheid.
Incidents of uprooting such as the forced removal of inhabitants from an area they have lived in from time
immemorial, are vividly portrayed by La Guma in In the Fog of the Season’s End:

  The sector had the look of a town cleared
  After a battle. Whole blocks had disappeared,
  leaving empty, flattened lots surrounded by
  battered survivors--- ‘they going to do it up
  again for white people’, the driver complained 19.

Incidents such as the one described above, affect a whole community. On an individual level, incidents of
uprooting also abound:

  A little way down the street a small crowd
  had gathered around a pile of old furniture---
  two men were loading household effects.
  ‘Just somebody moving house’, Beukes said 20.

In Tell Freedom, the imposing sign, “RESERVED FOR EUROPEANS ONLY”21, a symbol of apartheid,
causes Lee to feel alienated – a person with no claims to the resources in his country. As a result, he embarks
on the conscious process of removing himself physically from South Africa and goes later into exile. With this,
he becomes rootless.
Ogungbesan has argued that the “uprooted Lee we meet in Tell Freedom, is also reflective of the alienated
Xuma of Mine Boy, and the frustrated Dick Nduli of Song of the city”22. The rootless trend, therefore,
extends beyond Tell Freedom. Robert Green in his essay titled “Alex La Guma’s In the Fog of the Season’s
End: The politics of subversion”, argues that, “In the Fog, is not concerned with the moral and emotional
maturation of its hero”23. This type of rootlessness is not limited to the hero of  In the Fog, alone, it is also
aptly manifested in Beukes’ colleague, Elias Tekwane – alias ‘Hazel Friday’. Tekwane’s childhood was
characterised by acute poverty, hunger and deprivation. Elias, with the other children in his village had no
sufficient food to eat. “They went about in rags and tattered clothes, and had lice in their stiff hair”24. In
addition, Elias lost his father in a mine accident – therefore, Elias, like Lee in Tell Freedom, had to be taken
care of by his mother.

Even the situation of Elias Tekwane’s village appeared mean, barren and rootless, like the Elsburg location in
Tell Freedom. The village lay in a valley surrounded by “hills (that) looked like the thin form of a starving girl
covered by a thin blanket”25. The houses of the village “lay on the hillsides like discarded toys on a rumpled
carpet of brown and ochre”26. The disorganised nature of the village and its barren surroundings, lend
credence to the poverty that faces the non-white rural dweller in South Africa, and which in turn causes him to
migrate to the urban areas to earn a living; the beginning of his journey into rootlessness. Elias Tekwane later
left his village for the city to find employment and improve his living conditions, but met with even harsher
conditions, and joined the ‘organisation’, whose aim was the dismantling of apartheid. In the process of
propagating the ideals of the ‘organisation’ he was arrested, tortured and killed in prison by the racist police.
And his death was kept secret. Even Beukes his colleague was not aware that Elias had been arrested and
tortured to death.  

1 Robert Green, “Alex La Guma’s In the Fog of the Season’s End: The Politics of subversion”, in UMOJA,
No 3 (summer, 1979)
P. 85.

2 Green, P. 85

3 Kolewale Ogungbesan
, The Writing of Peter Abrahams (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1979), P. 86.

4 Ogungbesan, P. 86.

5 Green, P. 85

6 Green, P. 85

7 Peter Abrahams,
Tell Freedom (London: Faber and Faber Ltd, 1981), P.9. All subsequent Quotes from the
text are to this edition.

8 Abrahams, P. 9.

9 Abrahams, P. 18.

10 Alex La Guma,
In the Fog of the Season’s End (London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd, 1972), P. 14.
All subsequent Quotes from the text are to this edition.

11 Green, P. 87.

12 Green, P. 87.

13 Ogungbesan, P.90.

14 Abrahams, PP. 52-92.

15 La Guma, P. 29.

16 La Guma, P. 29.

17 Abrahams, P. 310.

18 La Guma, P. 11.

19 La Guma, P. 26.

20 La Guma, P. 27.

21 Abrahams, P. 310.

22  La Guma, P. 74.

25 La Guma, P. 73-74

26 La Guma, P. 73.

                                            CHAPTER THREE


The theme of rootlessness as manifested in the works of Abrahams and La Guma discussed in this essay, has
become an endemic problem in South Africa. Endemic in the sense that, so long as the policy of apartheid
remains in force, the problem of uprootedness of both the individual and his environment will continue.
For the propagators of the myth of white supremacy, though the tide of events seems to be in their favour now,
the future does not appear so bright. There are already dark clouds in the horizon. Even in the texts treated in
the essay there are various areas of optimism to buttress this assertion. In Mine Boy, for example, Xuma the
protagonist learnt to regard Paddy O’shea and other Whites as just fellow human beings with the same basic

Gradually, Blacks are becoming fully aware in South Africa that whites are not really superior to them. They
are beginning to question themselves with a view to seeking redress to the wrongs done to them. This
realisation can be compared to the subjugation meted out by a dominant ethnic group-the Batswanas to the
Masarwas (Bushmen), until one of the Batswana nobles married a Masarwa woman, which in turn led to the
realisation on the part of the Masarwas that their depraved condition could be redressed, in Bessie Head’s

A Walk in the Night, uprooted, but well-meaning and hard working characters like Franky Lorenzo, have a
glimmer of hope for the future in South Africa. The novella ends with Lorenzo’s wife, Grace, having a “knot of
life within her stomach”³. This ‘knot of life, symbolizes the new breed of South Africans ready to be born:
those who will achieve true freedom and build a free and fair society based on “man without colour”4. For this
breed of South Africans, rootlessness and apartheid shall be a thing of the past, as they are fully conscious of
events in their society.

The preparation to end apartheid and, therefore, curtail the trend of rootlessness, is intensified in
In the Fog
of the Season’s End
, where three members of the underground ‘organisation’ are smuggled out of South
Africa to help in furthering the cause of the resistance, by acquiring more military training abroad. Indeed, La
Guma gives us a glimpse of the eventual victory that was to come as a result of this resistance:

The sun was brightening the east now--- they
have gone to war in the name of a suffering
people. What the enemy has himself created,
these will become battle grounds--- they do
not have long to wait 5 .

This allusion to a bright future for the uprooted people of South Africa is echoed by Abrahams in Tell Freedom
In his moment of departure into exile from South Africa, Abrahams says:

A man can submit today in order to resist
tomorrow. My submission had been such---
The two million Whites cannot for ever be lords
over ten million non Whites--- when the
first rays of the morning sun touched the sky
in the east I got up and dressed. The long
night was over 6.

Whites in South Africa consciously uproot Blacks from their land and culture, brainwash them with a view to
maintaining masterdom over the forever. But, in the process, they over-regiment Blacks. And, these Blacks
are becoming aware of the White people’s intention. Therefore, Blacks are embarking on a process of
addressing the imbalance created by whites 7. The basic message in the four works of Abrahams and La
Guma treated in this research is the same: that is, that, Blacks and coloureds are not content to remain
rootless and second class citizens in the land of their birth. They want true equality among all races in the
scheme of things in South Africa.


1 Kolewale Ogungbesan, The Writing of Peter Abrahams (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1979), PP. 46-46.

2 Bessie Head,
Maru (London: Heinemann Educational Ltd, 1971), P. 125.

3 Alex La Guma,
A Walk in the Night (London: Heinemann Educational Ltd, 1968) P. 96

4 Ogungbesan, P. 2.

5 Alex La Guma,
In the Fog of the Season’s End (London: Heinemann Educational Ltd, 1972) PP. 180-181.

6 Peter Abrahams,
Tell Freedom (London: Faber and Faber Ltd, 1981), PP. 310-311.

7 Christopher Heywood (Ed.)
Aspects of South African Literature (London: Heinemann Educational Ltd,
1976), PP. 121-127.


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